INCREASED MORTALITY IN CHILDREN WITH MILD VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

Alfred Sommer, Gusti Hussaini, Ignatius Tarwotjo, Djoko Susanto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

An average of 3481 preschool-age rural Indonesian children were re-examined every 3 months for 18 months. The mortality rate among children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and/or Bitot's spots) was on average 4 times the rate, and in some age groups 8 to 12 times the rate, among children without xerophthalmia. Mortality increased, almost linearly, with the severity of mild xerophthalmia (night blindness, Bitot's spots, and the two combined). These relations persisted after stratification for respiratory disease, wasting, gastroenteritis, pedal oedema, and childhood exanthems. Mild vitamin A deficiency was directly associated with at least 16% of all deaths in children aged from 1 to 6 years. These results suggest that mild xerophthalmia justifies vigorous community-wide intervention, as much to reduce childhood mortality as to prevent blindness, and that night blindness and Bitot's spots are as important as anthropometric indices in screening children to determine which of them need medical and nutritional attention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)585-588
Number of pages4
JournalThe Lancet
Volume322
Issue number8350
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 10 1983

Fingerprint

Vitamin A Deficiency
Child Mortality
Xerophthalmia
Night Blindness
Mortality
Wasting Syndrome
Gastroenteritis
Blindness
Exanthema
Foot
Edema
Age Groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

INCREASED MORTALITY IN CHILDREN WITH MILD VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY. / Sommer, Alfred; Hussaini, Gusti; Tarwotjo, Ignatius; Susanto, Djoko.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 322, No. 8350, 10.09.1983, p. 585-588.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sommer, A, Hussaini, G, Tarwotjo, I & Susanto, D 1983, 'INCREASED MORTALITY IN CHILDREN WITH MILD VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY', The Lancet, vol. 322, no. 8350, pp. 585-588. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(83)90677-3
Sommer, Alfred ; Hussaini, Gusti ; Tarwotjo, Ignatius ; Susanto, Djoko. / INCREASED MORTALITY IN CHILDREN WITH MILD VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY. In: The Lancet. 1983 ; Vol. 322, No. 8350. pp. 585-588.
@article{bfb5e7187dff48238acd5233fb393b2a,
title = "INCREASED MORTALITY IN CHILDREN WITH MILD VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY",
abstract = "An average of 3481 preschool-age rural Indonesian children were re-examined every 3 months for 18 months. The mortality rate among children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and/or Bitot's spots) was on average 4 times the rate, and in some age groups 8 to 12 times the rate, among children without xerophthalmia. Mortality increased, almost linearly, with the severity of mild xerophthalmia (night blindness, Bitot's spots, and the two combined). These relations persisted after stratification for respiratory disease, wasting, gastroenteritis, pedal oedema, and childhood exanthems. Mild vitamin A deficiency was directly associated with at least 16{\%} of all deaths in children aged from 1 to 6 years. These results suggest that mild xerophthalmia justifies vigorous community-wide intervention, as much to reduce childhood mortality as to prevent blindness, and that night blindness and Bitot's spots are as important as anthropometric indices in screening children to determine which of them need medical and nutritional attention.",
author = "Alfred Sommer and Gusti Hussaini and Ignatius Tarwotjo and Djoko Susanto",
year = "1983",
month = "9",
day = "10",
doi = "10.1016/S0140-6736(83)90677-3",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "322",
pages = "585--588",
journal = "The Lancet",
issn = "0140-6736",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "8350",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - INCREASED MORTALITY IN CHILDREN WITH MILD VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

AU - Sommer, Alfred

AU - Hussaini, Gusti

AU - Tarwotjo, Ignatius

AU - Susanto, Djoko

PY - 1983/9/10

Y1 - 1983/9/10

N2 - An average of 3481 preschool-age rural Indonesian children were re-examined every 3 months for 18 months. The mortality rate among children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and/or Bitot's spots) was on average 4 times the rate, and in some age groups 8 to 12 times the rate, among children without xerophthalmia. Mortality increased, almost linearly, with the severity of mild xerophthalmia (night blindness, Bitot's spots, and the two combined). These relations persisted after stratification for respiratory disease, wasting, gastroenteritis, pedal oedema, and childhood exanthems. Mild vitamin A deficiency was directly associated with at least 16% of all deaths in children aged from 1 to 6 years. These results suggest that mild xerophthalmia justifies vigorous community-wide intervention, as much to reduce childhood mortality as to prevent blindness, and that night blindness and Bitot's spots are as important as anthropometric indices in screening children to determine which of them need medical and nutritional attention.

AB - An average of 3481 preschool-age rural Indonesian children were re-examined every 3 months for 18 months. The mortality rate among children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and/or Bitot's spots) was on average 4 times the rate, and in some age groups 8 to 12 times the rate, among children without xerophthalmia. Mortality increased, almost linearly, with the severity of mild xerophthalmia (night blindness, Bitot's spots, and the two combined). These relations persisted after stratification for respiratory disease, wasting, gastroenteritis, pedal oedema, and childhood exanthems. Mild vitamin A deficiency was directly associated with at least 16% of all deaths in children aged from 1 to 6 years. These results suggest that mild xerophthalmia justifies vigorous community-wide intervention, as much to reduce childhood mortality as to prevent blindness, and that night blindness and Bitot's spots are as important as anthropometric indices in screening children to determine which of them need medical and nutritional attention.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020556109&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020556109&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(83)90677-3

DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(83)90677-3

M3 - Article

C2 - 6136744

AN - SCOPUS:0020556109

VL - 322

SP - 585

EP - 588

JO - The Lancet

JF - The Lancet

SN - 0140-6736

IS - 8350

ER -