Increased adenosine in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children: Association with severity of injury and excitotoxicity

C. L. Robertson, M. J. Bell, P. M. Kochanek, P. D. Adelson, R. A. Ruppel, J. A. Carcillo, S. R. Wisniewski, Z. Mi, K. L. Janesko, R. S.B. Clark, D. W. Marion, S. H. Graham, E. K. Jackson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: To measure adenosine concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants and children after severe traumatic brain injury and to evaluate the contribution of patient age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Outcome Score, and time after injury to cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentrations. To evaluate the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid adenosine and glutamate concentrations in this population. Design: Prospective survey. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit in a university-based children's hospital. Patients: Twenty-seven critically ill infants and children who had severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale <8), who required placement of an intraventricular catheter and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid as part of their neurointensive care. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Patients ranged in age from 2 months to 14 yrs. Cerebrospinal fluid samples (n = 304) were collected from 27 patients during the first 7 days after traumatic brain injury. Control cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from lumbar puncture on 21 infants and children without traumatic brain injury or meningitis. Adenosine concentration was measured by using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Adenosine concentration was increased markedly in cerebrospinal fluid of children after traumatic brain injury vs. controls (p < .001). The increase in cerebrospinal fluid adenosine was independently associated with Glasgow Coma Scale ≤4 vs. >4 and time after injury (both p < .005). Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentration was not independently associated with either age (≤4 vs. >4 yrs), mechanism of injury (abuse vs. other), or Glasgow Outcome Score (good/moderately disabled vs. severely disabled, vegetative, or dead). Of the 27 patients studied, 18 had cerebrospinal fluid glutamate concentration previously quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. There was a strong association between increases in cerebrospinal fluid adenosine and glutamate concentrations (p < .005) after injury. Conclusions: Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine concentration is increased in a time- and severity-dependent manner in infants and children after severe head injury. The association between cerebrospinal fluid adenosine and glutamate concentrations may reflect an endogenous attempt at neuroprotection against excitotoxicity after severe traumatic brain injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2287-2293
Number of pages7
JournalCritical care medicine
Volume29
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Child abuse
  • Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Glutamate
  • Head injury
  • Pediatrics
  • Purine
  • Shaken baby syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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    Robertson, C. L., Bell, M. J., Kochanek, P. M., Adelson, P. D., Ruppel, R. A., Carcillo, J. A., Wisniewski, S. R., Mi, Z., Janesko, K. L., Clark, R. S. B., Marion, D. W., Graham, S. H., & Jackson, E. K. (2001). Increased adenosine in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury in infants and children: Association with severity of injury and excitotoxicity. Critical care medicine, 29(12), 2287-2293. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003246-200112000-00009