Incorporating new technologies into toxicity testing and risk assessment: Moving from 21st century vision to a data-driven framework

Russell S. Thomas, Martin A. Philbert, Scott S. Auerbach, Barbara A. Wetmore, Michael J. Devito, Ila Cote, J. Craig Rowlands, Maurice P. Whelan, Sean M. Hays, Melvin E. Andersen, M. E Bette Meek, Lawrence W. Reiter, Jason C. Lambert, Harvey J. Clewell, Martin L Stephens, Q. Jay Zhao, Scott C. Wesselkamper, Lynn Flowers, Edward W. Carney, Timothy P. PastoorDan D. Petersen, Carole L. Yauk, Andy Nong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Based on existing data and previous work, a series of studies is proposed as a basis toward a pragmatic early step in transforming toxicity testing. These studies were assembled into a data-driven framework that invokes successive tiers of testing with margin of exposure (MOE) as the primary metric. The first tier of the framework integrates data from high-throughput in vitro assays, in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) pharmacokinetic modeling, and exposure modeling. The in vitro assays are used to separate chemicals based on their relative selectivity in interacting with biological targets and identify the concentration at which these interactions occur. The IVIVE modeling converts in vitro concentrations into external dose for calculation of the point of departure (POD) and comparisons to human exposure estimates to yield a MOE. The second tier involves short-term in vivo studies, expanded pharmacokinetic evaluations, and refined human exposure estimates. The results from the second tier studies provide more accurate estimates of the POD and the MOE. The third tier contains the traditional animal studies currently used to assess chemical safety. In each tier, the POD for selective chemicals is based primarily on endpoints associated with a proposed mode of action, whereas the POD for nonselective chemicals is based on potential biological perturbation. Based on the MOE, a significant percentage of chemicals evaluated in the first 2 tiers could be eliminated from further testing. The framework provides a risk-based and animal-sparing approach to evaluate chemical safety, drawing broadly from previous experience but incorporating technological advances to increase efficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4-18
Number of pages15
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume136
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2013

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Risk assessment
Toxicity
Technology
Chemical Safety
Pharmacokinetics
Testing
Extrapolation
Assays
Animals
Throughput
In Vitro Techniques

Keywords

  • Biotransformation and toxicokinetics
  • Exposure.
  • In vitro and altenatives
  • Predictive toxicology
  • Risk assessment
  • Safety evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Thomas, R. S., Philbert, M. A., Auerbach, S. S., Wetmore, B. A., Devito, M. J., Cote, I., ... Nong, A. (2013). Incorporating new technologies into toxicity testing and risk assessment: Moving from 21st century vision to a data-driven framework. Toxicological Sciences, 136(1), 4-18. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kft178

Incorporating new technologies into toxicity testing and risk assessment : Moving from 21st century vision to a data-driven framework. / Thomas, Russell S.; Philbert, Martin A.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Wetmore, Barbara A.; Devito, Michael J.; Cote, Ila; Rowlands, J. Craig; Whelan, Maurice P.; Hays, Sean M.; Andersen, Melvin E.; Meek, M. E Bette; Reiter, Lawrence W.; Lambert, Jason C.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Stephens, Martin L; Zhao, Q. Jay; Wesselkamper, Scott C.; Flowers, Lynn; Carney, Edward W.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Petersen, Dan D.; Yauk, Carole L.; Nong, Andy.

In: Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 136, No. 1, 11.2013, p. 4-18.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thomas, RS, Philbert, MA, Auerbach, SS, Wetmore, BA, Devito, MJ, Cote, I, Rowlands, JC, Whelan, MP, Hays, SM, Andersen, ME, Meek, MEB, Reiter, LW, Lambert, JC, Clewell, HJ, Stephens, ML, Zhao, QJ, Wesselkamper, SC, Flowers, L, Carney, EW, Pastoor, TP, Petersen, DD, Yauk, CL & Nong, A 2013, 'Incorporating new technologies into toxicity testing and risk assessment: Moving from 21st century vision to a data-driven framework', Toxicological Sciences, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 4-18. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kft178
Thomas, Russell S. ; Philbert, Martin A. ; Auerbach, Scott S. ; Wetmore, Barbara A. ; Devito, Michael J. ; Cote, Ila ; Rowlands, J. Craig ; Whelan, Maurice P. ; Hays, Sean M. ; Andersen, Melvin E. ; Meek, M. E Bette ; Reiter, Lawrence W. ; Lambert, Jason C. ; Clewell, Harvey J. ; Stephens, Martin L ; Zhao, Q. Jay ; Wesselkamper, Scott C. ; Flowers, Lynn ; Carney, Edward W. ; Pastoor, Timothy P. ; Petersen, Dan D. ; Yauk, Carole L. ; Nong, Andy. / Incorporating new technologies into toxicity testing and risk assessment : Moving from 21st century vision to a data-driven framework. In: Toxicological Sciences. 2013 ; Vol. 136, No. 1. pp. 4-18.
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