BACKGROUND: Some patients with acute heart failure (AHF) who are treated initially with nonin-vasive ventilation (NIV) will require endotracheal intubation, which indicates NIV failure. The incidence and prognosis of NIV failure in patients with AHF are not well characterized. METHODS: Using the National In-Patient Sample (NIS), we conducted a retrospective cohort study of subjects hospitalized with AHF between 2008 and 2014 who were treated with NIV within 24 h of hospital admis-sion. We determined predictors of NIV failure and determined the association between NIV failure and in-hospital mortality using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of 279,534 subjects hospitalized with AHF and treated with NIV, 4,257 (1.52%) failed NIV and required intubation. Cardiogenic shock (odds ratio 8.79, 95% CI 6.89–11.2) and in-hospital arrest (odds ratio 24.9, 95% CI 18.71–33.14) were associated with NIV failure. In-hospital mortality was 26.5% for NIV failure com-pared to 5.6% for those without NIV (P < .001). After adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, cardiogenic shock, and in-hospital arrest, NIV failure was associated with nearly a 2-fold risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 1.95, 95% CI 1.59–2.40). CONCLUSIONS: Intubation after initial NIV treatment was required in 1.5% of subjects hospitalized with AHF and treated with NIV, and was associated with high in-hospital mortality. These findings can guide future prospective interventional Key words trials and quality improvement ventures.
- Acute heart failure
- Noninva-sive ventilation
- Respiratory failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine