Incidence of and Risk Factors for Visual Acuity Loss among Patients with AIDS and Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

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Abstract

Purpose: To describe the incidence of and risk factors for visual acuity loss among patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Design: Multicenter prospective observational study. Participants: Three hundred seventy-nine patients with AIDS and CMV retinitis (494 eyes). Methods: Follow-up every 3 months with medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory testing. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of visual acuity loss to 20/50 or worse, to 20/200 or worse, and of doubling of the visual angle in eyes affected with CMV retinitis. Results: Among the 494 eyes with CMV retinitis, the baseline frequencies of visual acuity loss to 20/50 or worse and to 20/200 or worse were 29% and 15%, respectively. Over a median follow-up period of 3.1 years, the incidences of visual acuity loss to 20/50 or worse, to 20/200 or worse, and of doubling of the visual angle were 0.10/eye-year (EY), 0.06/EY, and 0.13/EY, respectively. Immune recovery was associated with a 42% reduction in vision loss to 20/50 or worse and with a 61% reduction in vision loss to 20/200 or worse after adjusting for confounding. Of the patients with immune recovery at baseline, 17% had immune recovery uveitis (IRU). In these patients, the incidence rate of 20/50 or worse vision was similar to that observed in patients without immune recovery (0.17/EY vs. 0.16/EY), but the incidence of 20/200 or worse vision was similar to that observed among patients with immune recovery (0.04/EY vs. 0.04/EY). Conclusions: Cytomegalovirus retinitis is associated with a substantial risk of incident vision loss in the era of HAART. Those who have HAART-induced immune recovery have approximately 50% lower risk of visual acuity loss. Presence of IRU at baseline attenuated the protective effect of immune recovery for moderate vision loss but not for blindness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1432-1440
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmology
Volume113
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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