Introduction: There are currently no studies systematically evaluating pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) using the anatomic PV ablation approach. Methods and Results: Forty-one patients with AF underwent anatomic PV ablation under the guidance of a three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping system. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in all patients prior to and 8-10 weeks after ablation procedures for screening of PV stenosis. A PV stenosis was defined as a detectable (≥3 mm) narrowing in PV diameter. The severity of stenosis was categorized as mild (<50% stenosis), moderate (50-70%), or severe (>70%). A total 157 PVs were analyzed. A detectable PV narrowing was observed in 60 of 157 PVs (38%). The severity of stenosis was mild in 54 PVs (34%), moderate in five PVs (3.2%), and severe in one PV (0.6%). All mild PV stenoses displayed a concentric pattern. Moderate or severe PV stenosis was only observed in patients with an individual encircling lesion set. Multivariable analysis identified individual encircling lesion set and larger PV size as the independent predictors of detectable PV narrowing. All patients with PV stenosis were asymptomatic and none required treatment. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that detectable PV narrowing occurs in 38% of PVs following anatomic PV ablation. Moderate or severe PV stenosis occurs in 3.8% of PVs. The high incidence of mild stenosis likely reflects reverse remodeling rather than pathological PV stenosis. The probability of moderate or severe PV stenosis appears to be related to creation of individual encircling rather than encircling in pairs lesion.
- Atrial fibrillation
- Pulmonary vein
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)