In vivo measurement of regional oxygenation and imaging of redox status in RIF-1 murine tumor: Effect of carbogen-breathing

Govindasamy Ilangovan, Haiquan Li, Jay L. Zweier, Murali C. Krishna, James B. Mitchell, Periannan Kuppusamy

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The purpose of this study was to noninvasively monitor tumor oxygenation and redox status during hyperoxygenation treatment, such as carbogen-breathing, in a murine tumor model using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging techniques. The study was performed using implanted lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) microcrystals as the oximetry probe and 3-carbamoylproxyl (3-CP) as the redox probe in RIF-1 tumors implanted in the upper hind leg of C3H mice. Repetitive measurements of pO2 from the same tumors as a function of tumor growth (8-24 mm in size) showed that the tumors were hypoxic and that the tumor pO2 values were decreasing with tumor growth. Carbogen-breathing mostly showed an increase in the tumor oxygenation, although there were considerable variations in the magnitude of change among the tumors. The pharmacokinetic studies with 3-CP showed a significant decrease in the overall tumor reduction status in the carbogen-breathing mice. Spatially resolved (imaging) pharmacokinetic data over the tumor volume were obtained to visualize the distribution of the redox status within the tumor. The redox images of the tumor in the air-breathing mice showed significant heterogeneity in the magnitude and spatial distribution of reducing equivalents. On carbogen-breathing the tissue reduction status decreased considerably, with a concomitant decrease in the heterogeneity of distribution of the redox status. The results suggest that 1) carbogen-breathing considerably enhances tissue oxygenation and significantly decreases the redox status in RIF-1 tumor, and 2) changes in the magnitude and distribution of the redox status within the tumor volume during carbogen-breathing are correlated with the increased tissue oxygenation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)723-730
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2002


  • Carbogen-breathing
  • Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
  • Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc)
  • Oximetry
  • Redox imaging
  • RIF-1 tumor
  • Tumor hypoxia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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