Carotid endarterectomy is a common vascular surgical procedure which may help prevent patients' risk of having a stroke. A high resolution real-time imaging technique that can detect the position and size of vascular plaques would provide great value to reduce the risk level and increase the surgical outcome. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a high resolution high speed noninvasive imaging technique, was evaluated in this study. Twenty-four 24-week old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were divided into three groups with 8 in each. One served as the control group fed with normal diet. One served as the study group fed with high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. The last served as the treatment group fed with both high-fat diet and medicine to treat atherosclerosis. Full-range, complex-conjugate-free spectral-domain OCT was used to image the mouse aorta near the neck area in-vivo with aorta exposed to the imaging head through surgical procedure. 2D and 3D images of the area of interest were presented real-time through graphics processing unit accelerated algorithm. In-situ imaging of all the mice after perfusion were performed again to validate the invivo detection result and to show potential capability of OCT if combined with surgical saline flush. Later all the imaged arteries were stained with H and E to perform histology analysis. Preliminary results confirmed the accuracy and fast imaging speed of OCT imaging technique in determining atherosclerosis.