In vitro simulation: Early results of stereotaxy for pedicle screw placement

Allen L. Carl, Harpal S. Khanuja, Barton L. Sachs, Charles A. Gatto, John VomLehn, Kirby Vosburgh, John Schenck, William Lorensen, Kenneth Rohling, David Disler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Study Design. Frameless stereotaxy with doppler ultrasound and three dimensional computer model registration is assessed in vitro for pedicle screw placement. Objective. To identify feasibility of pedicle screw navigation end placement using this technology. Summery of Background Data. Inaccurate pedicle screw placement can lead to neurovascular injury or suboptimal fixation. Present techniques in pedicle screw placement involve only confirmation of hole orientation. Method. Forty-four pedicle screws were placed in lumbosacral models end cadaver specimens. Accuracy was assessed with a computed tomography scan and vertebral cross sectioning. Results. All screws were intrapedicular. Accuracy of anterior cortical fixation was 1.5 mm, with a range of 2.5 mm. Conclusion. In vitro frameless stereotaxy is accurate for pedicle screw placement. This technology adds a component of navigation to pedicle screw placement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1160-1164
Number of pages5
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 15 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-D
  • Doppler
  • in vitro simulation
  • pedicle screw
  • stereotaxy
  • ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology


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