Few drugs are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treating parasite infections in minor species such as fish, due in part to the high cost of developing such drugs and to a relatively small market share for drug sponsors. Because in vivo effectiveness trials for antiparasitic drugs are costly, time consuming, and use many animals, a systematic in vitro screening approach to describe parasite motility could help find promising drug candidates. We evaluated the effects of 7 antiparasitics on the activity and survival of the endoparasitic monogenean Acolpenteron ureteroecetes (Dactylogyridae) collected from the posterior kidneys of juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede, 1802) (Centrarchidae) held in the laboratory. Tests were conducted in 12 well tissue culture plates; each well had 3 parasites, and we tested 3 concentrations and 1 control for each of the 7 antiparasitics. The parasites were observed immediately after adding the drug, at 1 to 3 h, and 17 to 26 h, and video recordings were made. Drug effects were recorded by documenting morbidity (reduced movement, tremors, contracted body, abnormal morphology) and mortality. A. ureteroecetes was strongly affected by the quinoline praziquantel, the imidazothiazide levamisole, and the organophosphates dichlorvos and trichlorfon. The parasites were moderately affected by the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin and emamectin, and generally unaffected by the benzimidazole mebendazole. Our study demonstrates the utility of characterizing in vitro responses with video microscopy to document responses of fish parasites for initial screens of drug effects on a fish monogenean.
- In vitro
- Largemouth bass
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Aquatic Science