Recognizing that guideline-directed histologic grading of endomyocardial biopsy tissue samples for rejection surveillance has limited diagnostic accuracy, quantitative, in situ characterization was performed of several important immune cell types in a retrospective cohort of clinical endomyocardial tissue samples. Differences between cases were identified and were grouped by histologic grade versus clinical rejection trajectory, with significantly increased programmed death ligand 1+, forkhead box P3+, and cluster of differentiation 68+ cells suppressed in clinically evident rejections, especially cases with marked clinical-histologic discordance. Programmed death ligand 1+, forkhead box P3+, and cluster of differentiation 68+ cell proportions are also significantly higher in “never-rejection” when compared with “future-rejection.” These findings suggest that in situ immune modulators regulate the severity of cardiac allograft rejection.
- allograft rejection
- immune checkpoint molecules
- immune regulation
- quantitative immunohistochemistry
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine