Importance of the triglyceride level in identifying patients with a Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia phenotype using the ApoB algorithm

Bibin Varghese, Jihwan Park, Erin Chew, Aparna Sajja, Adam Brownstein, Vincent A. Pallazola, Vasanth Sathiyakumar, Steven R. Jones, Allan D. Sniderman, Seth S. Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III (HLP3), also known as dysbetalipoproteinemia, is defined by cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) enriched remnant lipoprotein particles (RLP). The gold standard for diagnosis requires demonstration of high remnant lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) by serum ultracentrifugation (UC), which is not readily available in daily practice. The apoB algorithm can identify HLP3 using total cholesterol (TC), plasma triglyceride (TG), and apoB. However, the optimal TG cutoff is unknown. Objective: We analyzed apoB algorithm defined HLP3 at different TG levels to optimize the TG cutoff for the algorithm. Methods: 128,485 UC lipid profiles in the Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDbL) were analyzed. RLP-C was assessed at TG ≥ 133 mg/dL, ≥175 mg/dL, ≥200 mg/dL, and ≥ 250 mg/dL. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and prevalence adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) were calculated against UC Criterion (VLDL-C/TG ≥ 0.25) for HLP3. Results: The median age (IQR) was 57 years (46–68). 45% were men, 20.1% had diabetes, and 25.5% had hypertension. The median RLP-C level for the TG cutoffs (mg/dL) of ≥ 133, ≥ 175, ≥ 200, and ≥ 250 were 34, 43, 50, and 62 mg/dL, respectively, compared to 67 mg/dL in UC defined HLP3. TG ≥ 133 mg/dL yielded optimal results (Sn 29.5%, Sp 98.5%, PABAK 0.96, PPV 13.6%, NPV 99.4%). Conclusion: TG ≥ 133 mg/dL allows for high sensitivity in screening for HLP3. Higher TG cutoffs may identify more severe HLP3 phenotypes, but with a large loss in sensitivity for HLP3.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)104-115.e9
JournalJournal of clinical lipidology
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

Keywords

  • Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia
  • Hypertriglyceridemia
  • apoB

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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