Implementation of nanoparticles in therapeutic radiation oncology

Erik Beeler, Prashant Gabani, Om V. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Development and progress of cancer is a very complex disease process to comprehend because of the multiple changes in cellular physiology, pathology, and pathophysiology resulting from the numerous genetic changes from which cancer originates. As a result, most common treatments are not directed at the molecular level but rather at the tissue level. While personalized care is becoming an increasingly aim, the most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, each of which has a high likelihood of resulting in rather severe adverse side effects. For example, currently used radiation therapy does not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and greatly relies on the external targeting of the radiation beams to specific cells and organs. Because of this, there is an immediate need for the development of new and innovative technologies that help to differentiate tumor cells and micrometastases from normal cells and facilitate the complete destruction of those cells. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have paved a way for the development of nanoparticles (NPs) as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery, and improve the therapeutic index of radiation and tumor response to the treatment. The application of NPs in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing therapeutic effect in tumors and reducing toxicity on normal tissues. Because NPs possess unique properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors and minimal uptake in normal tissues, it makes them ideal for the delivery of radiotherapy. This review provides an overview of the recent development of NPs for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment for a variety of cancers in radiation oncology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number179
JournalJournal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2017

Keywords

  • Cancer
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanoscale
  • Radiation therapy
  • Radioisotopes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Implementation of nanoparticles in therapeutic radiation oncology'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this