Impact of Virtual Simulation to Teach Concepts of Disaster Triage

Cynthia L. Foronda, Keith Shubeck, Sandra M. Swoboda, Krysia Warren Hudson, Chakra Budhathoki, Nancy Sullivan, Xiangen Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Background: At a time when major disasters are occurring with increasing frequency, nurses must understand principles of disaster triage. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a virtual simulation to teach nursing students concepts of triage using the Sort, Assess, Lifesaving Interventions, and Treatment/Transport model. Method: Using a mixed methods approach, six Bachelor of Science in Nursing students participated in a Web-based, virtual simulation of an earthquake. Students took a 20-item, multiple-choice test before and after the simulation and participated in a debriefing session. Results: A Wilcoxon signed rank test suggested no statistically significant improvement on the post-test (p = .168). Qualitative data revealed the following themes: (a) Fun, (b) Appreciation for Immediate Feedback, (c) Better than Reading, and (d) Technical Issues. Conclusions: With the improvement in technology and further educational research efforts, use of virtual simulation may be a teaching solution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-144
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Simulation in Nursing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


  • Disaster
  • Gaming
  • Nursing
  • Triage
  • Virtual reality
  • Virtual simulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Education
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


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