Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

Virginia M. Weaver, Gonzalo García Vargas, Ellen K. Silbergeld, Stephen J. Rothenberg, Jeffrey J. Fadrowski, Marisela Rubio-Andrade, Patrick J. Parsons, Amy J. Steuerwald, Ana Navas-Acien, Eliseo Guallar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1mL/min/1.73m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)226-232
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental research
Volume132
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2014

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Creatinine
  • Osmolality
  • Uranium
  • Urine concentration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

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