OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the change from an all oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) schedule to an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-containing schedule has adversely affected the immunization status of young children in the United States. METHODS: Immunization data were abstracted from the medical records of children 8 to 35 months old seen consecutively for any reason in the offices of practicing pediatricians who are members of the Pediatric Research in Office Settings network of the American Academy of Pediatrics or the National Medical Association. Data on up to 120 eligible children were collected in each practice between March 1998 and January 2000. Patients were classified as fully immunized at 8 months old if they had received 3 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, 2 Haemophilus influenzae type b, 2 hepatitis B, and 2 poliovirus vaccines. Study children who were >/=12 months of age at the time that data were collected were categorized as being fully immunized at 12 months if they had received the same vaccines before their first birthday. To assess the effect of type of poliovirus vaccines on these outcomes, study patients were classified as being in an IPV or OPV group based on the initial type of vaccine received. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IPV as a predictor of being fully immunized at 8 and 12 months of age, after adjusting for race/ethnicity of the patient, maternal education level, year of birth, and method of payment for vaccines. In addition, the effect of clustering of children within practices was accounted for by the use of generalized estimation equation techniques. RESULTS: Data were analyzed on 13 520 children from 177 practices in 42 states; 79.4% of patients were fully immunized at 8 months of age, and 88.7% of those eligible were fully immunized at 12 months of age. A total of 6910 patients (51.1%) were classified as OPV recipients, wheras 5282 (39.1%) received IPV. In addition, 1328 children (9.8%) were documented as having received poliovirus vaccine, but the particular type could not be determined. Compared with OPV recipients and after controlling for the confounding variables and the effect of clustering within practices, children in the IPV group were as likely as were OPV recipients to be fully immunized at 8 months of age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.88,1.23). At 12 months of age, the OR for IPV as a predictor of being fully immunized was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.90,1.30). When compared with OPV recipients, adjusted ORs for children in the undetermined poliovirus vaccine type group being fully immunized at 8 and 12 months of age were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68,1.04) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.67,1.07), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this national study indicate that the implementation of an IPV-containing poliovirus vaccine schedule has not had an adverse effect on the immunization status of young children who were vaccinated in the offices of practicing pediatricians.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health