Impact of the Association Between PNPLA3 Genetic Variation and Dietary Intake on the Risk of Significant Fibrosis in Patients With NAFLD

Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Pirola Carlos Jose, Silvia Sookoian, Laura A. Wilson, Patricia Belt, Tiebing Liang, Wanqing Liu, Naga Chalasani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: This study explored the relationship between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 gene (PNPLA3 rs738409), nutrient intake, and liver histology severity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: PNPLA3-rs738409 variant was genotyped in 452 non-Hispanic whites with histologically confirmed NAFLD who completed Food Frequency Questionnaire within 6 months of their liver biopsy. The fibrosis severity on liver histology was the outcome of interest. RESULTS: The distribution of PNPLA3 genotypes was CC: 28%, CG: 46%, and GG: 25%. High-carbohydrate (% of energy/d) intake was positively associated (adjusted [Adj] odds ratio [OR]: 1.03, P < 0.01), whereas higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) (g/d) (Adj. OR: 0.17, P < 0.01), isoflavones (mg/d) (Adj. OR: 0.74, P = 0.049), methionine (mg/d) (Adj. OR: 0.32, P < 0.01), and choline (mg/d) (Adj. OR: 0.32, P < 0.01) intakes were inversely associated with increased risk of significant fibrosis (stage of fibrosis ≥2). By using an additive model of inheritance, our moderation analysis showed that PNPLA3 rs738409 significantly modulates the relationship between carbohydrate (%), n-3 PUFAs, total isoflavones, methionine, and choline intakes and fibrosis severity in a dose-dependent, genotype manner. These dietary factors tended to have a larger and significant effect on fibrosis severity among rs738409 G-allele carriers. Associations between significant fibrosis and carbohydrates (Adj. OR: 1.04, P = 0.019), n-3 PUFAs (Adj. OR: 0.16, P < 0.01), isoflavones (Adj. OR: 0.65, P = 0.025), methionine (Adj. OR: 0.30, P < 0.01), and total choline (Adj. OR: 0.29, P < 0.01) intakes remained significant only among rs738409 G-allele carriers. DISCUSSION: This gene-diet interaction study suggests that PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele might modulate the effect of specific dietary nutrients on risk of fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)994-1006
Number of pages13
JournalThe American Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume116
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Impact of the Association Between PNPLA3 Genetic Variation and Dietary Intake on the Risk of Significant Fibrosis in Patients With NAFLD'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this