Impact of sex on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 1% tenofovir gel

Betsy C. Herold, Beatrice A. Chen, Robert A. Salata, Mark A Marzinke, Clifton W. Kelly, Charlene S. Dezzutti, Ian Mcgowan, Beth Galaska, Lisa Levy, Jeanna M. Piper, Sharon Hillier, Craig Hendrix

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background. Tenofovir (TFV) gel partially protected against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in one but not subsequent trials. The disappointing results were attributed largely to poor adherence. However, timing of gel application relative to sex may impact pharmacokinetics and contribute to outcomes. Thus, we conducted a single-dose pharmacokinetic study of TFV gel applied 1 or 24 hours before or 1 hour before and 1 hour after (BAT) sex and compared results with dosing without sex. Methods. Twenty-four couples were enrolled; cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and tissue were collected 2 hours after sex with matching timed collections at no sex visits and assayed for drug concentrations and CVL anti-HIV activity. Results. Compared with dosing without sex, median TFV concentrations after sex decreased 72% and 78% (P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-382
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2016



  • HIV
  • MTN-011
  • pharmacokinetics
  • post-coital
  • tenofovir gel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)

Cite this