Objectives: Over the past decade, dietary choices and nutrition have proven to be major modulators of bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women. We investigated environmental determinants, specifically dietary habits, of BMD by using multiple regression models in a rural Chinese population. Methods: BMDs were measured at the hip and total body in 5848 men and 6207 women, aged 25-64. Dietary and supplemental intakes were assessed by a simple, one-page questionnaire tailored to collect nutritional information from large rural populations. Another questionnaire was used to collect information on the subjects' age, disease history, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity as well as women's menstrual status and reproductive history. Multiple regression models were used to assess the relationships among dietary variables and BMD, after adjusting for age, BMI (body mass index), weight, occupation, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Results: Increasing seafood consumption was significantly associated with greater BMD in women (p < 0.001), especially those consuming more than 250 g per week of seafood. One thousand and three hundred and twenty-four men and 1479 women consumed >250 g of fruit per week. Higher fruit intake was found to be significantly associated with higher BMD in both sexes (p < 0.05). High vegetable consumption, however, did not positively impact BMD. Conclusions: This study with its large population size has identified preventive measures, as well as some risk factors, involved in bone loss and osteoporosis. Our results highlight the importance of several dietary variables as significant determinants of BMD. It also emphasizes the role of dietary intake in general and shows that specific foods, such as fruits and seafood, can positively impact BMD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Obstetrics and Gynecology