OBJECTIVE: Beginning in 2006, the Indian Health Service (IHS) began rotavirus vaccination of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) infants. To assess vaccine impact, we examined trends in IHS diarrhea-associated hospitalization and outpatient visits among AI/AN children in the pre- and postrotavirus vaccine era. METHODS: Diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits among AI/AN children <5 years of age during 2001 through 2010 were examined by gender, age group, and region for prevaccine years 2001-2006 and postvaccine years 2008, 2009, and 2010. To account for secular declining trends observed in prevaccine years, expected diarrhea-associated hospitalization and outpatient rates for postvaccine years were generated by using Poisson regression analysis of the 2001-2006 annual rates. RESULTS: Coverage with at least 1 dose of rotavirus vaccine among AI/AN infants aged 3 to 5 months in the first half of 2008, 2009, and 2010 ranged from 48% to 80% in various IHS regions. The prevaccine average annual diarrhea-associated hospitalization rates among AI/AN children <5 years of age was 63 per 10 000 persons (range: 57-75 per 10 000), and declined to 39, 31, and 27 per 10 000 in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Observed 2008, 2009, and 2010 rates were 24%, 37%, and 44% lower than expected rates, respectively. Decreases in diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits were observed in all IHS regions. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea-associated hospitalization and outpatient visit rates among AI/AN children have declined after implementation of rotavirus vaccination in AI/AN populations.
- Alaska native
- American Indian
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health