Background: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a major operation frequently necessitating red blood cell transfusion. Using multi-institutional data from the U.S. HIPEC Collaborative, this study sought to determine the association of perioperative allogenic blood transfusion (PABT) with perioperative outcomes after CRS/HIPEC. Methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed patients who underwent CRS/HIPEC for peritoneal surface malignancy between 2000 and 2017. Propensity score-matching was performed to mitigate bias. Univariate analysis was used to compare demographic, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables. Factors independently associated with PABT were identified using multivariate analysis. Results: The inclusion criteria were met by 1717 patients, 510 (29.7%) of whom required PABT. The mean Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) of our cohort was 14.8 ± 9.3. Propensity score-matching showed an independent association between PABT and postoperative risk of pleural effusion, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, enteric fistula formation, Clavien-Dindo grades 3 and 4 morbidity, longer hospital stay, and reoperation (all P < 0.05 in the multivariate analysis). Compared with the patients who received 1 to 5 red blood cell (RBC) units, the patients who received more than 5 units had a greater risk of renal impairment, a longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and more postoperative infections. Finally, PABT was an independent predictor of worse survival for patients with appendiceal and colorectal primaries. Conclusion: Even low levels of PABT for patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC are independently associated with a greater risk of infectious and non-infectious postoperative complications, and this risk is increased for patients receiving more than 5 RBC units. Worse survival was independently predicted by PABT for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of an appendiceal or colorectal origin.
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