Impact of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on infant morbidity and mortality

J. H. Humphrey, T. Agoestina, L. Wu, A. Usman, M. Nurachim, D. Subardja, S. Hidayat, J. Tielsch, K. P. West, A. Sommer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether vitamin A supplementation at birth could reduce infant morbidity and mortality. Study design: We conducted a placebo- controlled trial among 2067 Indonesian neonates who received either 52 μmol (50,000 IU) orally administered vitamin A or placebo on the first day of life. Infants were followed up at 1 year to determine the impact of this intervention on infant mortality. A subgroup (n = 470) was also examined at 4 and 6 months of age to examine the impact on morbidity. Results: Vital status was confirmed in 89% of infants in both groups at 1 year. There were 19 deaths in the control group and 7 in the vitamin A group (relative risk = 0.36; 95% confidence interval = 0.16, 0.87). The impact was stronger among boys, infants of normal compared with low birth weight, and those of greater ponderal index. Among infants examined at 4 months of age, the 1-week period prevalence of common morbidities was similar for vitamin A and control infants. However, during this same 4-month period, 73% and 51% more control infants were brought for medical treatment for cough (p=0.008) and fever (p=0.063), respectively. Conclusions: Neonatal vitamin A supplementation may reduce the infant mortality rate and the prevalence of severe respiratory infection among young infants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)489-496
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Volume128
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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