Impact of mass azithromycin distribution on malaria parasitemia during the low-transmission season in Niger: A cluster-randomized trial

Bruce D. Gaynor, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Baido Nassirou, Ousmane Lawan, Laouali Maman, Nicole E. Stoller, Sun N. Yu, Stephanie A. Chin, Sheila K. West, Robin L. Bailey, Philip J. Rosenthal, Jeremy D. Keenan, Travis C. Porco, Thomas M. Lietman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We assessed the effect of mass azithromycin treatment on malaria parasitemia in a trachoma trial in Niger. Twenty-four study communities received treatment during the wet, high-transmission season. Twelve of the 24 communities were randomized to receive an additional treatment during the dry, low-transmission season. Outcome measurements were conducted at the community-level in children < 1-72 months of age in May-June 2011. Parasitemia was higher in the 12 once-treated communities (29.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.5-40.0%) than in the 12 twice-treated communities (19.5%, 95% CI = 13.0-26.5%, P = 0.03). Parasite density was higher in once-treated communities (354 parasites/μL, 95% CI = 117-528 parasites/μL) than in twice-treated communities (74 parasites/μL, 95% CI = 41-202 parasites/μL, P = 0.03). Mass distribution of azithromycin reduced malaria parasitemia 4-5 months after the intervention. The results suggest that drugs with antimalaria activity can have long-lasting impacts on malaria during periods of low transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)846-851
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume90
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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    Gaynor, B. D., Amza, A., Kadri, B., Nassirou, B., Lawan, O., Maman, L., Stoller, N. E., Yu, S. N., Chin, S. A., West, S. K., Bailey, R. L., Rosenthal, P. J., Keenan, J. D., Porco, T. C., & Lietman, T. M. (2014). Impact of mass azithromycin distribution on malaria parasitemia during the low-transmission season in Niger: A cluster-randomized trial. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 90(5), 846-851. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0379