Impact of Geographic Socioeconomic Disadvantage on Minor Amputation Outcomes in Patients With Diabetes

George Q. Zhang, Joseph K. Canner, Elliott Haut, Ronald L. Sherman, Christopher J. Abularrage, Caitlin W. Hicks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Socioeconomic disadvantage is a known contributor to adverse events and higher admission rates in the diabetic population. However, its impact on outcomes after lower extremity amputation is unclear. We aimed to assess the association of geographic socioeconomic disadvantage with short- and long-term outcomes after minor amputation in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods: Geographic socioeconomic disadvantage was determined using the area deprivation index (ADI). All patients from the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database (2012-2019) who underwent minor amputation with a concurrent diagnosis of diabetes were included and stratified by the ADI quartile. Associations of the ADI quartile with 30-day readmission and 1-year reamputation were evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for baseline differences. Results: A total of 7415 patients with diabetes underwent minor amputation (70.1% male, 38.7% black race), including 28.1% ADI1 (least deprived), 42.8% ADI2, 22.9% ADI3, and 6.2% ADI4 (most deprived). After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, the odds of 30-day readmission were greater in the intermediate ADI groups than those in the ADI1 group, but not among the most deprived. Adjusted odds of 1-year reamputation were greater among ADI4 than those among ADI1. Kaplan–Meier analysis confirmed a greater likelihood of reamputation with an increasing ADI quartile over a 1-year period (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Geographic socioeconomic disadvantage is independently associated with both short- and long-term outcomes after minor diabetic amputations in Maryland. A targeted approach addressing the health care needs of deprived regions may be beneficial in optimizing postoperative care in this vulnerable population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-46
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Area deprivation index
  • Diabetes
  • Minor amputation
  • Readmission
  • Reamputation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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