Aims: We sought to determine the influence of genotype on clinical course and arrhythmic outcome among arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C)-associated mutation carriers. Methods and results: Pathogenic mutations in desmosomal and non-desmosomal genes were identified in 577 patients (241 families) from USA and Dutch ARVD/C cohorts. Patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) at presentation (n = 36) were younger (median 23 vs. 36 years; P < 0.001) than those presenting with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). Among 541 subjects presenting alive, over a mean follow-up of 6 ± 7 years, 12 (2%) patients died, 162 (30%) had sustained VT/VF, 78 (14%) manifested left ventricular dysfunction (EF < 55%), 28 (5%) experienced heart failure (HF), and 10 (2%) required cardiac transplantation. Patients (n = 22; 4%) with >1 mutation had significantly earlier occurrence of sustained VT/VF (mean age 28 ± 12 years), lower VT-/VF-free survival (P = 0.037), more frequent left ventricular dysfunction (29%), HF (19%) and cardiac transplantation (9%) when compared with those with only one mutation. Desmoplakin mutation carriers experienced more than four-fold occurrence of left ventricular dysfunction (40%) and HF (13%) than PKP2 carriers. Missense mutation carriers had similar death-/transplant-free survival and VT/VF penetrance (P = 0.137) when compared with those with truncating or splice site mutations. Men are more likely to be probands (P < 0.001), symptomatic (P < 0.001) and have earlier and more severe arrhythmic expression. Conclusions: Presentation with SCD/VF occurs at a significantly younger age when compared with sustained monomorphic VT. The genotype of ARVD/C mutation carriers impacts clinical course and disease expression. Male sex negatively modifies phenotypic expression.
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine