Impact of Anemia on Platelet Reactivity and Ischemic and Bleeding Risk: From the Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents Study

Gennaro Giustino, Ajay J. Kirtane, Usman Baber, Philippe Généreux, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Franz Josef Neumann, Giora Weisz, Akiko Maehara, Michael J. Rinaldi, Christopher Metzger, Timothy D. Henry, David A. Cox, Peter L. Duffy, Ernest L. Mazzaferri, Bruce R. Brodie, Thomas D. Stuckey, Paul A. Gurbel, George D. Dangas, Dominic P. Francese, Ozgu OzanRoxana Mehran, Gregg W. Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Anemic patients remain at increased risk of ischemic and bleeding events. Whether the effects of hemoglobin levels on thrombotic and bleeding risk are independent of platelet reactivity on clopidogrel, however, remains unknown. Patients from the Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents study were categorized by the presence of anemia at baseline, defined according the World Health Organization criteria. Platelet reactivity was measured with VerifyNow assay; high platelet reactivity (HPR) on clopidogrel was defined as platelet reactive units value >208. Of 8,413 patients included in the study cohort, 1,816 (21.6%) had anemia. HPR was more prevalent in patients with anemia (58.3% vs 38.4%; p <0.001), an association that persisted after multivariate adjustment (adjusted odds ratio: 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82 to 2.29; p <0.0001). Patients with anemia had higher 2-year rates of major adverse cardiac events (9.5% vs 5.6%; p <0.0001), major bleeding (11.8% vs 7.7%; p <0.0001), and all-cause mortality (4.0% vs 1.4%; p <0.0001); however, after adjustment for baseline clinical confounders, including HPR, anemia was no longer significantly associated with major adverse cardiac events but was still independently associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.12; p <0.0001) and major bleeding (adjusted HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.68; p <0.0001). The effect of HPR on clinical outcomes was uniform according to anemia status, without evidence of interaction. In conclusion, anemia independently correlated with HPR. After percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents, anemia at baseline was significantly associated with higher 2-year hemorrhagic and mortality risk; conversely, its association with ischemic risk was attenuated after multivariate adjustment, including HPR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1877-1883
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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