Immunological signaling during herpes simplex virus-2 and cytomegalovirus vaginal shedding after initiation of antiretroviral treatment

Martha C. Nason, Eshan U. Patel, Allison R. Kirkpatrick, Jessica L. Prodger, Kamnoosh Shahabi, Aaron A.R. Tobian, Sara Gianella, Sarah Kalibbala, Paschal Ssebbowa, Rupert Kaul, Ronald H. Gray, Thomas C. Quinn, David Serwadda, Steven J. Reynolds, Andrew D. Redd

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

Abstract

Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016

Keywords

  • CMV
  • Cytokine
  • HIV
  • HSV-2
  • Viral shedding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Clinical Neurology

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