Immunological priming requires regulatory T Cells and IL-10-producing macrophages to accelerate resolution from severe lung inflammation

Neil R. Aggarwal, Kenji Tsushima, Yoshiki Eto, Ashutosh Tripathi, Pooja Mandke, Jason R. Mock, Brian T. Garibaldi, Benjamin D. Singer, Venkataramana K. Sidhaye, Maureen R. Horton, Landon S. King, Franco R. D'Alessio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Overwhelming lung inflammation frequently occurs following exposure to both direct infectious and noninfectious agents and is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. In that context, immunomodulatory strategies may be used to limit severity of impending organ damage. We sought to determine whether priming the lung by activating the immune system, or immunological priming, could accelerate resolution of severe lung inflammation. We assessed the importance of alveolar macrophages, regulatory T cells, and their potential interaction during immunological priming. We demonstrate that oropharyngeal delivery of low-dose LPS can immunologically prime the lung to augment alveolar macrophage production of IL-10 and enhance resolution of lung inflammation induced by a lethal dose of LPS or by Pseudomonas bacterial pneumonia. IL-10-deficient mice did not achieve priming and were unable to accelerate lung injury resolution. Depletion of lung macrophages or regulatory T cells during the priming response completely abrogated the positive effect of immunological priming on resolution of lung inflammation and significantly reduced alveolar macrophage IL-10 production. Finally, we demonstrated that oropharyngeal delivery of synthetic CpG-oligonucleotides elicited minimal lung inflammation compared with low-dose LPS but nonetheless primed the lung to accelerate resolution of lung injury following subsequent lethal LPS exposure. Immunological priming is a viable immunomodulatory strategy used to enhance resolution in an experimental acute lung injury model with the potential for therapeutic benefit against a wide array of injurious exposures. The Journal of Immunology, 2014, 192: 4453-4464.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4453-4464
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 1 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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