In a four cell trial, a single 104 plaque-forming unit dose of rhesus rotavirus (RRV) vaccine (serotype G3), a human rotavirus-rhesus rotavirus reassortant vaccine with serotype G1 specificity, a similar vaccine with serotype G2 specificity, or a placebo was administered with buffer orally at 2 months of age to 800 Peruvian infants. Only the RRV vaccine was associated with a febrile response (<38°C) that occurred in 9% of the infants on day 4 after vaccination. Diarrhea or other side-effects were not associated with administration of vaccine. Vaccine strains were shed by only 12-18% of the infants as determined by examination of a single stool specimen obtained on days 4 or 5 after vaccination. Fifty per cent of vaccinees developed an IgA ELISA seroresponse; however, a serotype-specific seroresponse by plaque reduction neutralization was demonstrated in <20% of the participants against each of the three candidate vaccine strains. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated by twice-weekly home surveillance for diarrheal diseases during 24 months post-immunization. Rotavirus diarrheal episodes were identified by ELISA. Only the RRV vaccine had a significant protective efficacy (29%, P = 0.03, chi-square test) against rotavirus diarrhea. Analysis of vaccine efficacy against rotavirus episodes of any severity in which no other enteropathogen was isolated showed a trend towards higher vaccine efficacy. In addition, a similar trend was observed in rotavirus-only episodes in which there was some degree of dehydration or when health services were utilized. Serotype G1 or G2 rotavirus strains were most prevalent during surveillance. Neither serotype G1 or serotype G2 vaccines were protective against serotype 1 or 2 rotavirus diarrhea, respectively. The serotype G2 vaccine was 84% protective against serotype 1 and 2 dehydrating rotavirus diarrhea in the small numbers of individuals evaluated. We conclude that one dose of 104 p.f.u. of the RRV, serotype G1, or serotype G2 rotavirus vaccine failed to induce either an adequate serotype-specific seroresponse or serotype-specific protection in children immunized at 2 months of age. Only the RRV vaccine induced a low level of protection against rotavirus diarrhea mainly of serotype G1 specificity. Future studies need to explore whether higher vaccine dose and/or more than one dose would increase the immunogenicity and efficacy of the rotavirus vaccine, especially in developing countries with a high level of baseline rotavirus antibodies.
- rhesus rotavirus
- rotavirus vaccines
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases