Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of measles morbidity and mortality. We searched abstracts from the PubMed, Embase, and Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information databases for articles published from the earliest date available through September 26, 2017. The primary outcome of interest was serological responses to measles vaccine, stratified by HIV infection status. A total of 2,858 potentially eligible articles were identified, and the final review included 12 studies published between 1992 and 2013, 9 of which reported data on vaccine safety. The studies we included represented 3,573 children, of whom at least 335 were infected with HIV, 788 were HIV-exposed but not infected, and 1,478 were unexposed to HIV. Four of the 12 studies found statistically significant reductions in seropositivity among HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children within 4 months of vaccination (prevalence ratio range, 0.44-0.70), and forest plots provided visual trends of decreasing immunity over time among HIV-infected children in 2 additional studies. No vaccine-related deaths or serious adverse events were reported. This updated review demonstrated limitations of the existing published literature but supported evidence of reduced immunogenicity of measles vaccine among HIV-infected children, supporting the World Health Organization recommendation to revaccinate HIV-infected children against measles following immune reconstitution with combination antiretroviral therapy.
- measles vaccine
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