Immune checkpoint inhibitors: a new frontier in bladder cancer

Max Kates, Nikolai A. Sopko, Hotaka Matsui, Charles G. Drake, Noah M. Hahn, Trinity J. Bivalacqua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Immunotherapy is rapidly changing the field of urologic oncology. In this review, we discuss the role of the immune system in general and place a particular emphasis on the biology of the immune checkpoint and its role in cancer. Bladder cancer, as one of the most immunogenic neoplasms, is an exciting target for immune checkpoint inhibition. Early preclinical data and human trial experience suggest that this new drug class may shape bladder cancer therapy for years to come.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-55
Number of pages7
JournalWorld journal of urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Bladder cancer
  • Immune checkpoint
  • Tumor immunology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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