Immune cells have sex and so should journal articles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Males and females have the same immunological cells, proteins, and pathways in place to protect against the development of disease. The kinetics, magnitude, and skewing of the responses mounted against pathogens, allergens, toxins, or self-antigens, however, can differ dramatically between the sexes. Generally, females mount higher innate and adaptive immune responses than males, which can result in faster clearance of pathogens but also contributes to increased susceptibility to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in females compared with males. Hormonal and genetic factors contribute significantly to sex differences in immune function and disease pathogenesis. In particular, the expression of X-linked genes and microRNA as well as sex steroid hormones signaling through hormone receptors in immune cells can affect responses to immunological stimuli differently in males and females. Despite data illustrating profound differences between the sexes in immune function, sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease are often overlooked in biomedical research. Establishing journal policies that require authors to report the sex of their cells, animals, and subjects will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases, with the long-term goal of personalizing treatments for immune-mediated diseases differently for males and females in an effort to protect us equally.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2544-2550
Number of pages7
JournalEndocrinology
Volume153
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2012

Fingerprint

Sex Characteristics
Immune System Diseases
X-Linked Genes
Autoantigens
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Adaptive Immunity
MicroRNAs
Innate Immunity
Allergens
Autoimmune Diseases
Biomedical Research
Hormones
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Immune cells have sex and so should journal articles. / Klein, Sabra L.

In: Endocrinology, Vol. 153, No. 6, 06.2012, p. 2544-2550.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{56c3ec27e8fc4c0d807f9eb0feac7459,
title = "Immune cells have sex and so should journal articles",
abstract = "Males and females have the same immunological cells, proteins, and pathways in place to protect against the development of disease. The kinetics, magnitude, and skewing of the responses mounted against pathogens, allergens, toxins, or self-antigens, however, can differ dramatically between the sexes. Generally, females mount higher innate and adaptive immune responses than males, which can result in faster clearance of pathogens but also contributes to increased susceptibility to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in females compared with males. Hormonal and genetic factors contribute significantly to sex differences in immune function and disease pathogenesis. In particular, the expression of X-linked genes and microRNA as well as sex steroid hormones signaling through hormone receptors in immune cells can affect responses to immunological stimuli differently in males and females. Despite data illustrating profound differences between the sexes in immune function, sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease are often overlooked in biomedical research. Establishing journal policies that require authors to report the sex of their cells, animals, and subjects will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases, with the long-term goal of personalizing treatments for immune-mediated diseases differently for males and females in an effort to protect us equally.",
author = "Klein, {Sabra L}",
year = "2012",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1210/en.2011-2120",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "153",
pages = "2544--2550",
journal = "Endocrinology",
issn = "0013-7227",
publisher = "The Endocrine Society",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Immune cells have sex and so should journal articles

AU - Klein, Sabra L

PY - 2012/6

Y1 - 2012/6

N2 - Males and females have the same immunological cells, proteins, and pathways in place to protect against the development of disease. The kinetics, magnitude, and skewing of the responses mounted against pathogens, allergens, toxins, or self-antigens, however, can differ dramatically between the sexes. Generally, females mount higher innate and adaptive immune responses than males, which can result in faster clearance of pathogens but also contributes to increased susceptibility to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in females compared with males. Hormonal and genetic factors contribute significantly to sex differences in immune function and disease pathogenesis. In particular, the expression of X-linked genes and microRNA as well as sex steroid hormones signaling through hormone receptors in immune cells can affect responses to immunological stimuli differently in males and females. Despite data illustrating profound differences between the sexes in immune function, sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease are often overlooked in biomedical research. Establishing journal policies that require authors to report the sex of their cells, animals, and subjects will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases, with the long-term goal of personalizing treatments for immune-mediated diseases differently for males and females in an effort to protect us equally.

AB - Males and females have the same immunological cells, proteins, and pathways in place to protect against the development of disease. The kinetics, magnitude, and skewing of the responses mounted against pathogens, allergens, toxins, or self-antigens, however, can differ dramatically between the sexes. Generally, females mount higher innate and adaptive immune responses than males, which can result in faster clearance of pathogens but also contributes to increased susceptibility to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in females compared with males. Hormonal and genetic factors contribute significantly to sex differences in immune function and disease pathogenesis. In particular, the expression of X-linked genes and microRNA as well as sex steroid hormones signaling through hormone receptors in immune cells can affect responses to immunological stimuli differently in males and females. Despite data illustrating profound differences between the sexes in immune function, sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease are often overlooked in biomedical research. Establishing journal policies that require authors to report the sex of their cells, animals, and subjects will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases, with the long-term goal of personalizing treatments for immune-mediated diseases differently for males and females in an effort to protect us equally.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84861302903&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84861302903&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1210/en.2011-2120

DO - 10.1210/en.2011-2120

M3 - Article

C2 - 22434079

AN - SCOPUS:84861302903

VL - 153

SP - 2544

EP - 2550

JO - Endocrinology

JF - Endocrinology

SN - 0013-7227

IS - 6

ER -