Immigration and contract problems experienced by foreign-educated nurses

Patricia Pittman, Carolina Herrera, Joanne Spetz, Catherine R. Davis

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


    More than 8% of employed RNs licensed since 2004 in the United States were educated overseas, yet little is known about the conditions of their recruitment or the impact of that experience on health care practice. This study assessed whether the labor rights of foreign-educated nurses were at risk during the latest period of high international recruitment: 2003 to 2007. Using consensus-based standards contained in the Voluntary Code of Ethical Conduct for the Recruitment of Foreign-Educated Health Professionals to the United States, this study found 50% of actively recruited foreign-educated nurses experienced a negative recruitment practice. The study also found that nurses educated in low-income countries and nurses with high contract breach fees, were significantly more likely to report such problems. If, as experts believe may occur, the nursing shortage in the United States returns around 2014, oversight of international recruitment will become critically important to delivering high-quality health care to Americans.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)351-365
    Number of pages15
    JournalMedical Care Research and Review
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Jun 2012


    • foreign-educated nurses
    • internationally educated nurses
    • labor rights
    • registered nurses
    • workforce

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Health Policy


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