In recent years, small-molecule inhibitors of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) labeled with radionuclides that allow for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging have been extensively studied in many clinical contexts in men with prostate cancer (PCa). The high sensitivity and specificity of these agents for identifying sites of PCa has quickly led to their widespread adoption as a de facto clinical standard of care throughout much of the world. PSMA-targeted PET radiotracers have been particularly well-studied in preoperatively staging men with high-risk PCa, evaluating biochemical recurrence following definitive therapy, and guiding metastasis-directed therapy in patients suspected of having oligorecurrent/oligometastatic disease. Furthermore, the expression of PSMA on the tumor neovasculature of many nonprostate malignancies has enabled a burgeoning subfield concentrated on delineating the potential utility of PSMA-targeted PET agents for imaging other cancers. In this review, we highlight the preclinical development of key small molecules that are now being clinically utilized for PCa imaging, discuss the roles of PSMA-targeted agents in guiding patient management, and consider the role these compounds may play in imaging nonprostate cancers.
- glutamate carboxypeptidase II NAALADase
- prostate cancer
- renal cell carcinoma
- tumor neovasculature
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)