Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland

Akira Kawashima, Carl M. Sandler, Randy D. Ernst, Naoki Takahashi, Marilyn A. Roubidoux, Stanford M. Goldman, Elliot K Fishman, N. Reed Dunnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland is uncommon. The causes of such hemorrhage can be classified into five categories: (a) stress, (b) hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy, (c) neonatal stress, (d) underlying adrenal tumors, and (e) idiopathic disease. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play an important role in diagnosis and management. CT is the modality of choice for evaluation of adrenal hemorrhage in a patient with a history of stress or a hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy (anticoagulant therapy). CT may yield the first clue to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage; such insufficiency is rare but life threatening. US is the modality of choice for evaluation of neonatal hematoma, and MR imaging is helpful for further characterization. MR imaging is also useful in the diagnosis of coexistent renal vein thrombosis. When an adrenal abscess is suspected, percutaneous aspiration and drainage under imaging guidance should be performed. Hemorrhage into an adrenal cyst or tumor can cause acute onset of symptoms and signs in a patient without discernible risk factors for adrenal hemorrhage. A hemorrhagic adrenal tumor should be suspected when CT or MR imaging reveals a hemorrhagic adrenal mass of heterogeneous attenuation or signal intensity that demonstrates enhancement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)949-963
Number of pages15
JournalRadiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Volume19
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1999

Fingerprint

Adrenal Glands
Hemorrhage
Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Glandular and Epithelial Neoplasms
Ultrasonography
Adrenal Insufficiency
Renal Veins
Hematoma
Anticoagulants
Abscess
Signs and Symptoms
Cysts
Drainage
Thrombosis
Neoplasms

Keywords

  • Adrenal gland, abnormalities, 86.18
  • Adrenal gland, abscess, 86.211
  • Adrenal gland, CT, 86.1211
  • Adrenal gland, hemorrhage, 86.546
  • Adrenal gland, insufficiency, 86.549
  • Adrenal gland, MR, 86.1214
  • Adrenal gland, neoplasms, 86.30
  • Adrenal gland, US, 86.1298

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Cite this

Kawashima, A., Sandler, C. M., Ernst, R. D., Takahashi, N., Roubidoux, M. A., Goldman, S. M., ... Dunnick, N. R. (1999). Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, 19(4), 949-963.

Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland. / Kawashima, Akira; Sandler, Carl M.; Ernst, Randy D.; Takahashi, Naoki; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Goldman, Stanford M.; Fishman, Elliot K; Dunnick, N. Reed.

In: Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, Vol. 19, No. 4, 07.1999, p. 949-963.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kawashima, A, Sandler, CM, Ernst, RD, Takahashi, N, Roubidoux, MA, Goldman, SM, Fishman, EK & Dunnick, NR 1999, 'Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland', Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 949-963.
Kawashima A, Sandler CM, Ernst RD, Takahashi N, Roubidoux MA, Goldman SM et al. Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 1999 Jul;19(4):949-963.
Kawashima, Akira ; Sandler, Carl M. ; Ernst, Randy D. ; Takahashi, Naoki ; Roubidoux, Marilyn A. ; Goldman, Stanford M. ; Fishman, Elliot K ; Dunnick, N. Reed. / Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland. In: Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 1999 ; Vol. 19, No. 4. pp. 949-963.
@article{ff6a38467c0f407ab35ea62200b3cd2d,
title = "Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland",
abstract = "Nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland is uncommon. The causes of such hemorrhage can be classified into five categories: (a) stress, (b) hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy, (c) neonatal stress, (d) underlying adrenal tumors, and (e) idiopathic disease. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play an important role in diagnosis and management. CT is the modality of choice for evaluation of adrenal hemorrhage in a patient with a history of stress or a hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy (anticoagulant therapy). CT may yield the first clue to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage; such insufficiency is rare but life threatening. US is the modality of choice for evaluation of neonatal hematoma, and MR imaging is helpful for further characterization. MR imaging is also useful in the diagnosis of coexistent renal vein thrombosis. When an adrenal abscess is suspected, percutaneous aspiration and drainage under imaging guidance should be performed. Hemorrhage into an adrenal cyst or tumor can cause acute onset of symptoms and signs in a patient without discernible risk factors for adrenal hemorrhage. A hemorrhagic adrenal tumor should be suspected when CT or MR imaging reveals a hemorrhagic adrenal mass of heterogeneous attenuation or signal intensity that demonstrates enhancement.",
keywords = "Adrenal gland, abnormalities, 86.18, Adrenal gland, abscess, 86.211, Adrenal gland, CT, 86.1211, Adrenal gland, hemorrhage, 86.546, Adrenal gland, insufficiency, 86.549, Adrenal gland, MR, 86.1214, Adrenal gland, neoplasms, 86.30, Adrenal gland, US, 86.1298",
author = "Akira Kawashima and Sandler, {Carl M.} and Ernst, {Randy D.} and Naoki Takahashi and Roubidoux, {Marilyn A.} and Goldman, {Stanford M.} and Fishman, {Elliot K} and Dunnick, {N. Reed}",
year = "1999",
month = "7",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "19",
pages = "949--963",
journal = "Radiographics",
issn = "0271-5333",
publisher = "Radiological Society of North America Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland

AU - Kawashima, Akira

AU - Sandler, Carl M.

AU - Ernst, Randy D.

AU - Takahashi, Naoki

AU - Roubidoux, Marilyn A.

AU - Goldman, Stanford M.

AU - Fishman, Elliot K

AU - Dunnick, N. Reed

PY - 1999/7

Y1 - 1999/7

N2 - Nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland is uncommon. The causes of such hemorrhage can be classified into five categories: (a) stress, (b) hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy, (c) neonatal stress, (d) underlying adrenal tumors, and (e) idiopathic disease. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play an important role in diagnosis and management. CT is the modality of choice for evaluation of adrenal hemorrhage in a patient with a history of stress or a hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy (anticoagulant therapy). CT may yield the first clue to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage; such insufficiency is rare but life threatening. US is the modality of choice for evaluation of neonatal hematoma, and MR imaging is helpful for further characterization. MR imaging is also useful in the diagnosis of coexistent renal vein thrombosis. When an adrenal abscess is suspected, percutaneous aspiration and drainage under imaging guidance should be performed. Hemorrhage into an adrenal cyst or tumor can cause acute onset of symptoms and signs in a patient without discernible risk factors for adrenal hemorrhage. A hemorrhagic adrenal tumor should be suspected when CT or MR imaging reveals a hemorrhagic adrenal mass of heterogeneous attenuation or signal intensity that demonstrates enhancement.

AB - Nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland is uncommon. The causes of such hemorrhage can be classified into five categories: (a) stress, (b) hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy, (c) neonatal stress, (d) underlying adrenal tumors, and (e) idiopathic disease. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play an important role in diagnosis and management. CT is the modality of choice for evaluation of adrenal hemorrhage in a patient with a history of stress or a hemorrhagic diathesis or coagulopathy (anticoagulant therapy). CT may yield the first clue to the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral massive adrenal hemorrhage; such insufficiency is rare but life threatening. US is the modality of choice for evaluation of neonatal hematoma, and MR imaging is helpful for further characterization. MR imaging is also useful in the diagnosis of coexistent renal vein thrombosis. When an adrenal abscess is suspected, percutaneous aspiration and drainage under imaging guidance should be performed. Hemorrhage into an adrenal cyst or tumor can cause acute onset of symptoms and signs in a patient without discernible risk factors for adrenal hemorrhage. A hemorrhagic adrenal tumor should be suspected when CT or MR imaging reveals a hemorrhagic adrenal mass of heterogeneous attenuation or signal intensity that demonstrates enhancement.

KW - Adrenal gland, abnormalities, 86.18

KW - Adrenal gland, abscess, 86.211

KW - Adrenal gland, CT, 86.1211

KW - Adrenal gland, hemorrhage, 86.546

KW - Adrenal gland, insufficiency, 86.549

KW - Adrenal gland, MR, 86.1214

KW - Adrenal gland, neoplasms, 86.30

KW - Adrenal gland, US, 86.1298

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033160942&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033160942&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 19

SP - 949

EP - 963

JO - Radiographics

JF - Radiographics

SN - 0271-5333

IS - 4

ER -