Imaging neuroendocrine tumors: Characterizing the spectrum of radiographic findings

Azarakhsh Baghdadi, Maryam Ghadimi, Sahar Mirpour, Bita Hazhirkarzar, Mina Motaghi, Timothy M. Pawlik, Ihab R. Kamel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a group of neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation affecting a wide range of organs. Functional NETs present with symptoms due to the particular hormone produced. Functional NETs are usually small at diagnosis and therefore can be challenging to diagnose. In contrast, non-functioning NETs are generally larger and present with mass effect. Imaging plays an indispensable role in diagnosis, staging and management of patients with NETs. The optimal modality and technique for imaging of NETs depend on the location of primary and metastatic lesions. Regardless of the imaging modality, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging is essential for evaluation of NETs. In general, CT scan is typically the primary imaging modality for evaluating NETs. MRI is used as a complementary modality, being superior to other modalities to assess liver metastasis. Nuclear medicine imaging is also widely used in NET assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101529
JournalSurgical Oncology
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • CT
  • Carcinoids
  • Functional imaging
  • MRI
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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