The measurement of extracellular pH (pH e) has potential utility for cancer diagnoses and for assessing the therapeutic effects of pHdependent therapies. A single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent that is detected through paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) was designed to measure tumor pH e throughout the range of physiologic pH and with magnetic resonance saturation powers that are not harmful to a mouse model of cancer. The chemical characterization and modeling of the contrast agent Yb 3+-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid,10-o-aminoanilide (Yb-DO3A-oAA) suggested that the aryl amine of the agent forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond with a proximal carboxylate ligand, which was essential for generating a practical chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect from an amine. A ratio of CEST effects from the aryl amine and amide was linearly correlated with pH throughout the physiologic pH range. The pH calibration was used to produce a parametric pH map of a subcutaneous flank tumor on a mouse model of MCF-7 mammary carcinoma. Although refinements in the in vivo CEST MRI methodology may improve the accuracy of pH e measurements, this study demonstrated that the PARACEST contrast agent can be used to generate parametric pH maps of in vivo tumors with saturation power levels that are not harmful to a mouse model of cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Biomedical Engineering
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Condensed Matter Physics