Identity of the avian wing digits: Problems resolved and unsolved

Rebecca L. Young, Gaberiel Bever, Zhe Wang, Günter P. Wagner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Controversy over bird wing digit identity has been a touchstone for various ideas in the phylogeny of birds, homology, and developmental evolution. This review summarizes the past 10 years of progress toward understanding avian digit identity. We conclude that the sum of evidence supports the Frame Shift Hypothesis, indicating that the avian wing digits have changed anatomical location. Briefly, the derivation of birds from theropod dinosaurs and the positional identities of the avian wing digits as 2, 3, and 41 are no longer in question. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that the developmental programs for identity of the wing digits are of digits I, II, and III. Therefore, the attention moves from whether the digit identity frame shift occurred, to what the mechanisms of the frame shift were, and when in evolution it happened. There is considerable uncertainty about these issues and we identify exciting new research directions to resolve them.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1042-1053
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopmental Dynamics
Volume240
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Birds
Dinosaurs
Phylogeny
Uncertainty
Research
Direction compound

Keywords

  • Birds
  • Digit identity
  • Frame shift
  • Homology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Identity of the avian wing digits : Problems resolved and unsolved. / Young, Rebecca L.; Bever, Gaberiel; Wang, Zhe; Wagner, Günter P.

In: Developmental Dynamics, Vol. 240, No. 5, 05.2011, p. 1042-1053.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Young, Rebecca L. ; Bever, Gaberiel ; Wang, Zhe ; Wagner, Günter P. / Identity of the avian wing digits : Problems resolved and unsolved. In: Developmental Dynamics. 2011 ; Vol. 240, No. 5. pp. 1042-1053.
@article{2ccd80e5a24842d0a38dc86b5c5e1dfe,
title = "Identity of the avian wing digits: Problems resolved and unsolved",
abstract = "Controversy over bird wing digit identity has been a touchstone for various ideas in the phylogeny of birds, homology, and developmental evolution. This review summarizes the past 10 years of progress toward understanding avian digit identity. We conclude that the sum of evidence supports the Frame Shift Hypothesis, indicating that the avian wing digits have changed anatomical location. Briefly, the derivation of birds from theropod dinosaurs and the positional identities of the avian wing digits as 2, 3, and 41 are no longer in question. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that the developmental programs for identity of the wing digits are of digits I, II, and III. Therefore, the attention moves from whether the digit identity frame shift occurred, to what the mechanisms of the frame shift were, and when in evolution it happened. There is considerable uncertainty about these issues and we identify exciting new research directions to resolve them.",
keywords = "Birds, Digit identity, Frame shift, Homology",
author = "Young, {Rebecca L.} and Gaberiel Bever and Zhe Wang and Wagner, {G{\"u}nter P.}",
year = "2011",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1002/dvdy.22595",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "240",
pages = "1042--1053",
journal = "Developmental Dynamics",
issn = "1058-8388",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Identity of the avian wing digits

T2 - Problems resolved and unsolved

AU - Young, Rebecca L.

AU - Bever, Gaberiel

AU - Wang, Zhe

AU - Wagner, Günter P.

PY - 2011/5

Y1 - 2011/5

N2 - Controversy over bird wing digit identity has been a touchstone for various ideas in the phylogeny of birds, homology, and developmental evolution. This review summarizes the past 10 years of progress toward understanding avian digit identity. We conclude that the sum of evidence supports the Frame Shift Hypothesis, indicating that the avian wing digits have changed anatomical location. Briefly, the derivation of birds from theropod dinosaurs and the positional identities of the avian wing digits as 2, 3, and 41 are no longer in question. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that the developmental programs for identity of the wing digits are of digits I, II, and III. Therefore, the attention moves from whether the digit identity frame shift occurred, to what the mechanisms of the frame shift were, and when in evolution it happened. There is considerable uncertainty about these issues and we identify exciting new research directions to resolve them.

AB - Controversy over bird wing digit identity has been a touchstone for various ideas in the phylogeny of birds, homology, and developmental evolution. This review summarizes the past 10 years of progress toward understanding avian digit identity. We conclude that the sum of evidence supports the Frame Shift Hypothesis, indicating that the avian wing digits have changed anatomical location. Briefly, the derivation of birds from theropod dinosaurs and the positional identities of the avian wing digits as 2, 3, and 41 are no longer in question. Additionally, increasing evidence indicates that the developmental programs for identity of the wing digits are of digits I, II, and III. Therefore, the attention moves from whether the digit identity frame shift occurred, to what the mechanisms of the frame shift were, and when in evolution it happened. There is considerable uncertainty about these issues and we identify exciting new research directions to resolve them.

KW - Birds

KW - Digit identity

KW - Frame shift

KW - Homology

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79955021433&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79955021433&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/dvdy.22595

DO - 10.1002/dvdy.22595

M3 - Review article

C2 - 21412936

AN - SCOPUS:79955021433

VL - 240

SP - 1042

EP - 1053

JO - Developmental Dynamics

JF - Developmental Dynamics

SN - 1058-8388

IS - 5

ER -