Identification of replication competent murine gammaretroviruses in commonly used prostate cancer cell lines

Karen Sfanos, Amanda L. Aloia, Jessica L. Hicks, David M. Esopi, Jared P. Steranka, Wei Shao, Silvia Sanchez-Martinez, S Yegnasubramanian, Kathleen Burns, Alan Rein, Angelo Michael Demarzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A newly discovered gammaretrovirus, termed XMRV, was recently reported to be present in the prostate cancer cell line CWR22Rv1. Using a combination of both immunohistochemistry with broadly-reactive murine leukemia virus (MLV) anti-sera and PCR, we determined if additional prostate cancer or other cell lines contain XMRV or MLV-related viruses. Our study included a total of 72 cell lines, which included 58 of the 60 human cancer cell lines used in anticancer drug screens and maintained at the NCI-Frederick (NCI-60). We have identified gammaretroviruses in two additional prostate cancer cell lines: LAPC4 and VCaP, and show that these viruses are replication competent. Viral genome sequencing identified the virus in LAPC4 and VCaP as nearly identical to another known xenotropic MLV, Bxv-1. We also identified a gammaretrovirus in the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line EKVX. Prostate cancer cell lines appear to have a propensity for infection with murine gammaretroviruses, and we propose that this may be in part due to cell line establishment by xenograft passage in immunocompromised mice. It is unclear if infection with these viruses is necessary for cell line establishment, or what confounding role they may play in experiments performed with these commonly used lines. Importantly, our results suggest a need for regular screening of cancer cell lines for retroviral "contamination", much like routine mycoplasma testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere20874
JournalPLoS One
Volume6
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011

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Gammaretrovirus
prostatic neoplasms
Prostatic Neoplasms
Cells
cell lines
Cell Line
Viruses
mice
Murine Leukemia Viruses
Murine leukemia virus
viruses
neoplasm cells
Mycoplasma
Viral Genome
antineoplastic agents
Virus Diseases
Virus Replication
Early Detection of Cancer
Heterografts
Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Identification of replication competent murine gammaretroviruses in commonly used prostate cancer cell lines. / Sfanos, Karen; Aloia, Amanda L.; Hicks, Jessica L.; Esopi, David M.; Steranka, Jared P.; Shao, Wei; Sanchez-Martinez, Silvia; Yegnasubramanian, S; Burns, Kathleen; Rein, Alan; Demarzo, Angelo Michael.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 6, No. 6, e20874, 2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sfanos, Karen ; Aloia, Amanda L. ; Hicks, Jessica L. ; Esopi, David M. ; Steranka, Jared P. ; Shao, Wei ; Sanchez-Martinez, Silvia ; Yegnasubramanian, S ; Burns, Kathleen ; Rein, Alan ; Demarzo, Angelo Michael. / Identification of replication competent murine gammaretroviruses in commonly used prostate cancer cell lines. In: PLoS One. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 6.
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