Identification of putative biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the CSF of HIV-infected patients under cART therapy determined by mass spectrometry

Adriana Bora, Ceereena Ubaida Mohien, Raghothama Chaerkady, Linda Chang, Richard Moxley, Ned Sacktor, Norman Haughey, Justin C. McArthur, Robert Cotter, Avindra Nath, David R. Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We identified and measured proteins in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) involved in HIV-associated neurological disorders. Protein levels were determined by mass spectrometry (MS) in pooled CSF taken from three patient groups (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients that developed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), HIV-1-infected patients without HAND, and healthy controls). Pools were generated from 10 patients each per group. CSF from individual patient groups were digested with trypsin and separately labeled using with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). After combining all samples in one, peptides were extensively fractionated by offline two-dimensional separation and identified by tandem MS. One hundred and ninety three proteins were deemed to be interpretable for quantitation based on permutation tests with a 95 % confidence interval with a p value ≤ 0.05. Using a cutoff of 1.5-fold for upregulation and 0.6 for downregulation, 16 proteins were differentially expressed in HIV + HAND (reporter p value ≤0.05) with seven of them previously described as HIV-interacting proteins: endoplasmin, mitochondrial damage mediator-BH3-interacting domanin death agonist, orosomucoid, apolipoprotein E, metalloproteinase inhibitor 2, peroxiredoxin-2, and the nuclear protein, ruvB-like 2. Several previously unidentified proteins with possible neurological implication in HIV patients include forming-binding protein 1, C-reactive protein, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin receptor 1, renin receptor, mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 14, multimerin-2, alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase, caldesmon, and cadherin EGF LAG G-type receptor. Our results suggest that not only a few but possibly a combination of biomarkers that are highly correlated can predict neurocognitive status in HIV-infected patients and might be involved in monocyte or macrophage activation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)457-465
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of neurovirology
Volume20
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 21 2014

Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • HIV
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Proteomics
  • i-TRAQ

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Virology

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