Identification of Candidates for Salvage Therapy: The Past, Present, and Future of Defining Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Failure

Russell E.N. Becker, Max R. Kates, Trinity J. Bivalacqua

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Disease progression and recurrence are common among patients on Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy, and options for bladder-preserving subsequent therapy remain limited. Ongoing efforts to develop better second-line bladder-sparing therapies rely on clinical trials of patients deemed to have failed management with BCG. This article describes historical definitions of BCG failure, as well as recent efforts to better delineate and refine the clinical criteria for identifying individual patients who will not benefit from further intravesical BCG therapy. It also reviews guidance from the most recent expert consensus panels and professional association guidelines regarding which patients should not receive additional BCG therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15-21
Number of pages7
JournalUrologic Clinics of North America
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2020



  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin failure
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin unresponsive
  • Bladder cancer
  • Intravesical therapy
  • Nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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