Identification of a transient excision intermediate at the crossroads between DNA polymerase extension and proofreading pathways

Rosanna Baker, Linda J. Reha-Krantz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

DNA polymerases achieve accurate DNA replication through a delicate balance between primer elongation and proofreading. While insufficient proofreading results in DNA replication errors, indiscriminate removal of correct along with incorrect nucleotides is wasteful and may prevent completion of DNA synthesis. The transition between polymerization and proofreading modes is proposed to be governed by a kinetic barrier that prevents proofreading unless the rate of primer elongation is significantly reduced by the presence of an incorrect base pair at the primer-terminus. We have used mutational analysis, coupled with a sensitive, fluorescence-based assay to characterize intermediate steps in the proofreading pathway. A highly fluorescent complex forms between the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase and DNA primer-templates labeled at the 3' terminus with the base analog 2- aminopurine. Formation of the fluorescent complex appears to be a rate- determining step in the proofreading pathway and is impaired for several mutator T4 DNA polymerases with amino acid substitutions in the exonuclease domain. Although these mutant DNA polymerases are proficient in hydrolysis, their reduced ability to form the fluorescent complex imposes a higher kinetic barrier. As a consequence, the mutant DNA polymerases proofread less frequently, resulting in more DNA replication errors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3507-3512
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume95
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 31 1998
Externally publishedYes

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DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
DNA Replication
2-Aminopurine
Bacteriophage T4
Exonucleases
DNA Primers
Amino Acid Substitution
Base Pairing
Polymerization
Hydrolysis
Nucleotides
Fluorescence
DNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

Cite this

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abstract = "DNA polymerases achieve accurate DNA replication through a delicate balance between primer elongation and proofreading. While insufficient proofreading results in DNA replication errors, indiscriminate removal of correct along with incorrect nucleotides is wasteful and may prevent completion of DNA synthesis. The transition between polymerization and proofreading modes is proposed to be governed by a kinetic barrier that prevents proofreading unless the rate of primer elongation is significantly reduced by the presence of an incorrect base pair at the primer-terminus. We have used mutational analysis, coupled with a sensitive, fluorescence-based assay to characterize intermediate steps in the proofreading pathway. A highly fluorescent complex forms between the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase and DNA primer-templates labeled at the 3' terminus with the base analog 2- aminopurine. Formation of the fluorescent complex appears to be a rate- determining step in the proofreading pathway and is impaired for several mutator T4 DNA polymerases with amino acid substitutions in the exonuclease domain. Although these mutant DNA polymerases are proficient in hydrolysis, their reduced ability to form the fluorescent complex imposes a higher kinetic barrier. As a consequence, the mutant DNA polymerases proofread less frequently, resulting in more DNA replication errors.",
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N2 - DNA polymerases achieve accurate DNA replication through a delicate balance between primer elongation and proofreading. While insufficient proofreading results in DNA replication errors, indiscriminate removal of correct along with incorrect nucleotides is wasteful and may prevent completion of DNA synthesis. The transition between polymerization and proofreading modes is proposed to be governed by a kinetic barrier that prevents proofreading unless the rate of primer elongation is significantly reduced by the presence of an incorrect base pair at the primer-terminus. We have used mutational analysis, coupled with a sensitive, fluorescence-based assay to characterize intermediate steps in the proofreading pathway. A highly fluorescent complex forms between the bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase and DNA primer-templates labeled at the 3' terminus with the base analog 2- aminopurine. Formation of the fluorescent complex appears to be a rate- determining step in the proofreading pathway and is impaired for several mutator T4 DNA polymerases with amino acid substitutions in the exonuclease domain. Although these mutant DNA polymerases are proficient in hydrolysis, their reduced ability to form the fluorescent complex imposes a higher kinetic barrier. As a consequence, the mutant DNA polymerases proofread less frequently, resulting in more DNA replication errors.

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