ICU-RESPECT: An index to assess patient and family experiences of respect in the intensive care unit

Gail Geller, Emily D. Branyon, Lindsay K. Forbes, Rachel J. Topazian, Brian Weir, Joseph Carrese, Mary Catherine Beach, Jeremy Sugarman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose The purpose of the study is to develop a brief index of patient and family experiences of respect in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods We designed a questionnaire with 44 items representing 12 themes that emerged from prior in-depth interviews with ICU patients and families. After pilot testing, items with minimal variability were eliminated. The resulting 21-item questionnaire was administered to patients and families in 5 adult ICUs. Psychometric analyses were conducted. Results Fifty-seven questionnaires were completed. Factor analysis resulted in a unidimensional scale consisting of 10 items with an α of .85 and an Eigen value of 11.3. Factor loadings ranged from 0.54 to 0.84, and item-test correlations ranged from 0.47 to 0.71. The mean total score was 7.25 out of a maximum of 10. Scores were lower for surgical than medical or disease-specific ICUs. Conclusions The “ICU-RESPECT” index demonstrates high reliability and concurrent validity in ICU patients and families. Future research should validate this index in other ICU settings, assess its predictive validity, and evaluate different methods for maximizing response rate. As hospitals address patient experience more broadly in response to national metrics, the index could identify particular behaviors or ICUs that would benefit from interventions to enhance respectful treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)54-59
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Critical Care
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2016



  • Ethics
  • Human dignity
  • Intensive care units
  • Patient care
  • Professional-patient relationship
  • Psychometrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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