Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent signaling between triple-negative breast cancer cells and mesenchymal stem cells promotes macrophage recruitment

Pallavi Chaturvedi, Daniele M. Gilkes, Naoharu Takano, Gregg L. Semenza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Intratumoral hypoxia induces the recruitment of stromal cells, such as macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which stimulate invasion and metastasis by breast cancer cells (BCCs). Production of macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) by BCCs is required for macrophage recruitment, but the mechanisms underlying CSF1 expression have not been delineated. Triplenegative breast cancers have increased expression of genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). In this study, we delineate two feed-forward signaling loops between human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative BCCs and human MSCs that drive stromal cell recruitment to primary breast tumors. The first loop, in which BCCs secrete chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) that binds to C-X-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CXCR6) on MSCs and MSCs secrete chemokine CXCL10 that binds to receptor CXCR3 on BCCs, drives recruitment of MSCs. The second loop, in which MSCs secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 that binds to C-C chemokine receptor type 5 on BCCs and BCCs secrete cytokine CSF1 that binds to the CSF1 receptor on MSCs, drives recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These two signaling loops operate independent of each other, but both are dependent on the transcriptional activity of HIFs, with hypoxia serving as a pathophysiological signal that synergizes with chemokine signals from MSCs to trigger CSF1 gene transcription in triple-negative BCCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2120-E2129
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume111
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - May 20 2014

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