Accumulating evidence has shown that the hypoxic microenvironment, which is critical during cancer development, plays a key role in regulating breast cancer progression and metastasis. The effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of the hypoxic response, have been extensively studied during these processes. In this review, we focus on the roles of HIF-1 in regulating breast cancer cell metastasis, specifically its effects on multiple key steps of metastasis, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, extravasation, and metastatic niche formation. We also discuss the roles of HIF-1-regulated non-coding RNAs in breast cancer metastasis, and therapeutic opportunities for breast cancer through targeting the HIF-1 pathway.
- Breast cancer
- Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)