Purpose: To evaluate the risk of and risk factors for hypopyon among patients with uveitis and to evaluate the risk of visual changes and complications after hypopyon. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Participants: Patients with uveitis at 4 academic ocular inflammation subspecialty practices. Methods: Data were ascertained by standardized chart review. Main Outcome Measures: Prevalence and incidence of hypopyon, risk factors for hypopyon, and incidence of visual acuity changes and ocular complications after hypopyon. Results: Among 4911 patients with uveitis, 41 (8.3/1000) cases of hypopyon were identified at the time of cohort entry. Of these, 2885 initially free of hypopyon were followed over 9451 person-years, during which 81 patients (2.8%) developed hypopyon (8.57/1000 person-years). Risk factors for incident hypopyon included Behçet's disease (adjusted relative risk [RR]=5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.76-10.2), spondyloarthropathy (adjusted RR=2.86; 95% CI, 1.48-5.52), and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 positivity (adjusted RR=2.04; 95% CI, 1.17-3.56). Patients with both a spondyloarthropathy and HLA-B27 had a higher risk than either factor alone (crude RR=4.39; 95% CI, 2.26-8.51). Diagnosis of intermediate uveitis (± anterior uveitis) was associated with a lower risk of hypopyon (with respect to anterior uveitis only, adjusted RR=0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.85). Hypopyon incidence tended to be lower among patients with sarcoidosis (crude RR=0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.90; adjusted RR=-0.28; 95% CI, 0.07-1.15). Post-hypopyon eyes and eyes not developing hypopyon had a similar incidence of band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, ocular hypertension, hypotony, macular edema, epiretinal membrane, cataract surgery, or glaucoma surgery. Post-hypopyon eyes were more likely than eyes not developing hypopyon to gain 3 lines of vision (crude RR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.05-2.24) and were less likely to develop 20/200 or worse visual acuity (crude RR=0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99); otherwise, visual outcomes were similar in these groups. Conclusions: Hypopyon is an uncommon occurrence in patients with uveitis. Risk factors included Behçet's disease, HLA-B27 positivity, and spondyloarthropathy. Intermediate uveitis cases (± anterior uveitis) had a lower risk of hypopyon. On average, post-hypopyon eyes were no more likely than other eyes with uveitis to develop structural ocular complications or lose visual acuity. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
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