Hypo-osmolar formulation of tenofovir (TFV) enema promotes uptake and metabolism of TFV in tissues, leading to prevention of SHIV/SIV infection

Peng Xiao, Sanjeev Gumber, Mark A Marzinke, Abhijit A. Date, Thuy Hoang, Justin S Hanes, Laura Ensign-Hodges, Lin Wang, Lisa Rohan, Edward Fuchs, Craig Hendrix, Francois Villinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been approved for prophylaxis of HIV-1 transmission but is associated with high costs and issues of adherence. Protection from anal transmission of HIV using topical microbicides and methods congruent with sexual behavior offers the promise of improved adherence. We compared the pharmacokinetics (PK) and ex vivo efficacy of iso-osmolar (IOsm) and hypo-osmolar (HOsm) rectal enema formulations of tenofovir (TFV) in rhesus macaques. Single-dose PK of IOsm or HOsm high-dose (5.28 mg/ml) and low-dose (1.76 mg/ml) formulations of TFV enemas were evaluated for systemic uptake in blood, colorectal biopsy specimens, and rectal CD4+ T cells. Markedly higher TFV concentrations were observed in plasma and tissues after administration of the HOsm high-dose formulation than with all other formulations tested. TFV and TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in tissue correlated for the HOsm high-dose formulation, demonstrating rapid uptake and transformation of TFV to TFV-DP in tissues. TFV-DP amounts in tissues collected at 1 and 24 h were 7 times and 5 times higher, respectively (P < 0.01), than the ones collected in tissues with the IOsm formulation. The HOsm high-dose formulation prevented infection in ex vivo challenges of rectal tissues collected at 1, 24, and 72 h after the intrarectal dosing, whereas the same TFV dose formulated as an IOsm enema was less effective.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere01644-17
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018



  • Enema
  • Hypo-osmolar
  • Monkey
  • Tenofovir

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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