Hypertension treatment effects on orthostatic hypotension and its relationship with cardiovascular disease results from the AASK trial

Stephen P. Juraschek, Lawrence J. Appel, Edgar R. Miller, Kenneth J. Mukamal, Lewis A. Lipsitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Although orthostatic hypotension (OH) is often considered a contraindication to blood pressure (BP) treatment, evidence is lacking. We examined the effect of BP goal or initial medication choice on OH in AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension), a 2×3 factorial trial. Blacks with chronic kidney disease attributed to hypertension were randomly assigned 1 of 2 BP goals: intensive (mean arterial pressure, ≤92 mm Hg) or standard (mean arterial pressure, 102-107 mm Hg) and 1 of 3 initial medications (ramipril, metoprolol, and amlodipine). Postural changes in systolic BP, diastolic BP, or heart rate (HR) were determined after 2 minutes and 45 seconds of standing. OH was assessed each visit and defined using the consensus definition (drop in systolic BP ≥20 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥10 mm Hg). Median follow-up was 4 years. Outcomes were congestive heart failure, stroke, nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD), fatal CVD, any CVD (composite of preceding events), and all-cause mortality. There were 1094 participants (mean age, 54.5±10.7 years; 38.8% female; OH was assessed at 52 864 visits). Mean seated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HR were 150.3±23.9 mm Hg, 95.5±14.2 mm Hg, and 72.0±12.6 bpm, respectively. A more intensive BP goal did not alter the distributions of standing BP and was not associated with OH, but metoprolol was associated with systolic OH compared with ramipril (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.15-2.46) and amlodipine (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.09-3.44). Although consensus OH was associated with stroke (HR, 5.01; 95% CI, 1.80-13.92), nonfatal CVD (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.21-4.30), and any CVD event (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.12-3.98), neither BP goal or medication altered this risk. Concerns about causing OH or its CVD consequences should not deter a lower BP goal among adults with chronic kidney disease attributed to hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)986-993
Number of pages8
JournalHypertension
Volume72
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Amlodipine
  • Blood pressure
  • Hypertension
  • Hypotension
  • Metoprolol
  • Orthostatic
  • Ramipril
  • Randomized controlled trial

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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