Hypertension Self-management in Socially Disadvantaged African Americans: the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) Randomized Comparative Effectiveness Trial

L. Ebony Boulware, Patti L. Ephraim, Felicia Hill-Briggs, Debra L. Roter, Lee R. Bone, Jennifer L. Wolff, La Pricia Lewis-Boyer, David M. Levine, Raquel C. Greer, Deidra C. Crews, Kimberly A. Gudzune, Michael C. Albert, Hema C. Ramamurthi, Jessica M. Ameling, Clemontina A. Davenport, Hui Jie Lee, Jane F. Pendergast, Nae Yuh Wang, Kathryn A. Carson, Valerie SneedDebra J. Gayles, Sarah J. Flynn, Dwyan Monroe, Debra Hickman, Leon Purnell, Michelle Simmons, Annette Fisher, Nicole DePasquale, Jeanne Charleston, Hanan J. Aboutamar, Ashley N. Cabacungan, Lisa A. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Effective hypertension self-management interventions are needed for socially disadvantaged African Americans, who have poorer blood pressure (BP) control compared to others. Objective: We studied the incremental effectiveness of contextually adapted hypertension self-management interventions among socially disadvantaged African Americans. Design: Randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Participants: One hundred fifty-nine African Americans at an urban primary care clinic. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to receive (1) a community health worker (“CHW”) intervention, including the provision of a home BP monitor; (2) the CHW plus additional training in shared decision-making skills (“DoMyPART”); or (3) the CHW plus additional training in self-management problem-solving (“Problem Solving”). Main Measures: We assessed group differences in BP control (systolic BP (SBP) < 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) < 90 mmHg), over 12 months using generalized linear mixed models. We also assessed changes in SBP and DBP and participants’ BP self-monitoring frequency, clinic visit patient-centeredness (i.e., extent of patient-physician discussions focused on patient emotional and psychosocial concerns), hypertension self-management behaviors, and self-efficacy. Key Results: BP control improved in all groups from baseline (36%) to 12 months (52%) with significant declines in SBP (estimated mean [95% CI] − 9.1 [− 15.1, − 3.1], − 7.4 [− 13.4, − 1.4], and − 11.3 [− 17.2, − 5.3] mmHg) and DBP (− 4.8 [− 8.3, − 1.3], − 4.0 [− 7.5, − 0.5], and − 5.4 [− 8.8, − 1.9] mmHg) for CHW, DoMyPART, and Problem Solving, respectively). There were no group differences in BP outcomes, BP self-monitor use, or clinic visit patient-centeredness. The Problem Solving group had higher odds of high hypertension self-care behaviors (OR [95% CI] 18.7 [4.0, 87.3]) and self-efficacy scores (OR [95% CI] 4.7 [1.5, 14.9]) at 12 months compared to baseline, while other groups did not. Compared to DoMyPART, the Problem Solving group had higher odds of high hypertension self-care behaviors (OR [95% CI] 5.7 [1.3, 25.5]) at 12 months. Conclusion: A context-adapted CHW intervention was correlated with improvements in BP control among socially disadvantaged African Americans. However, it is not clear whether improvements were the result of this intervention. Neither the addition of shared decision-making nor problem-solving self-management training to the CHW intervention further improved BP control. Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01902719.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)142-152
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Volume35
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • community health worker
  • hypertension
  • self-management
  • social disadvantage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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