Introduction: The effect of hyperglycaemia on the brain cells of septic shock patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hyperglycaemia and apoptosis in the brains of septic shock patients.Methods: In a prospective study of 17 patients who died from septic shock, hippocampal tissue was assessed for neuronal ischaemia, neuronal and microglial apoptosis, neuronal Glucose Transporter (GLUT) 4, endothelial inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), microglial GLUT5 expression, microglial and astrocyte activation. Blood glucose (BG) was recorded five times a day from ICU admission to death. Hyperglycaemia was defined as a BG 200 mg/dL g/l and the area under the BG curve (AUBGC) > 2 g/l was assessed.Results: Median BG over ICU stay was 2.2 g/l. Neuronal apoptosis was correlated with endothelial iNOS expression (rho = 0.68, P = 0.04), while microglial apoptosis was associated with AUBGC > 2 g/l (rho = 0.70; P = 0.002). Neuronal and microglial apoptosis correlated with each other (rho = 0.69, P = 0.006), but neither correlated with the duration of septic shock, nor with GLUT4 and 5 expression. Neuronal apoptosis and ischaemia tended to correlate with duration of hypotension.Conclusions: In patients with septic shock, neuronal apoptosis is rather associated with iNOS expression and microglial apoptosis with hyperglycaemia, possibly because GLUT5 is not downregulated. These data provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the neuroprotective effects of glycemic control.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine